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精选习题和答案七
  作者:   时间: 2012-2-11   来源:   点击:3850  

  If sustainable competitive advantage depends on work-force skills, American firms have a problem. Human resource management is not traditionally seen as central to the competitive survival of the firm in the United States. Skill acquisition is considered as an individual responsibility. Labor is simply another factor of production to be hired or rented at the lowest possible cost much as one buys raw materials or equipment.

  The lack of importance attached to human resource management can be seen in the corporation hierarchy. In an American firm the chief financial officer is almost always second in command. The post of head of human resource managements is usually a specialized job, often at the edge of the corporate hierarchy. The executive who holds it is never consulted on major strategic decisions and has no chance to move up to Chief Executive Officer (CEO), By way of contrast, in Japan the head of human resource management is central-usually the second most important executive, after the CEO, in the firm's hierarchy.

  While American firms often talk about the vast amounts spent on training their workforces, in fact they invest less in the skill of their employees than do the Japanese or German firms. The money they do invest is also more highly concentrated on professional and managerial employees. And the limited investments that are made in training workers are also much more narrowly focused on the specific skills necessary to do the next job rather than on the basic background skills that make it possible to absorb new technologies.

  As a result, problems emerge when new breakthrough technologies arrive. If American workers, for example, take much longer to learn how to operate new flexible manufacturing stations that workers in Germany (as they do), the effective cost of those stations is lower in Germany than it is in the United States. More time is required before equipment is up and running at capacity, and the need for extensive retraining generates costs and creates bottlenecks that limit the speed with which new equipment can be employed. The result is a slower pace of technological change. And in the end the skills of the bottom half of the population affect the wages of the top half. If the bottom half can't effectively staff the processes that have to be operated, the management and professional jobs that go with these processes will disappear.

  1. Which of the following applies to the management of human resources in American companies?

  A. They hire people at the lowest cost regardless of their skills.

  B. They see the gaining of skills as their employees'own business.

  C. They attach more importance to workers than to equipment.

  D. They only hire skilled workers because of keen competition.

  2. What is the position of the head of human resource management in an American firm?

  A. He is one of the most important executives in the firm.

  B. His post is likely to disappear when new technologies are introduced.

  C. He is directly under the chief financial executive.

  D. He has no authority in making important decisions in the firm.

  3. The money most American firms spend in training mainly goes to _______.

  A. workers who can operate new equipment

  B. technological and managerial staff

  C. workers who lack basic background skills

  D. top executives

  4. What is the main idea of the passage?

  A. American firms are different from Japanese and German firms in human resource management.

  B. Extensive retraining is indispensable to effective human resource management.

  C. The head of human resource management must be in the central position in a firm's hierarchy.

  D. The human resource management strategies of American firms affect their competitive capacity.

  5. The acquisition for the basic background skill is very important EXCEPT that _______.

  A. it makes the management and professional jobs of no significance

  B. it reduce the wage level of the top managers

  C. it can save time for the workers to learn to operate the new technology

  D. it costs much but produce less obvious results

  参考答案:BDBDDC 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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